**Online Engineering**

Wireless communication is a key enabler for vehicle connectivity. It is comprised of various technologies that relate to automotive and commercial vehicle applications and more.

This course is designed to help students to understand the technologies involved in vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure applications including remote controlled laboratories, SCADA system and the ‘internet of things’ (IOT) applications. It is intended to develop the skill set necessary for an educated understanding of the challenges and opportunities related to connected vehicles and connected applications.

After completing this course, students will have detailed knowledge on the technical challenges relating to wireless communications which can enhance the reliability and control of autonomous vehicles.

**Computing and AutoCAD**

Today's world of engineering requires considerable experience and training in ‘designing and drafting principles, and techniques’, to be successful. AutoCAD is a program that helps to create electrical control design, documentation, panel layout, schematic design and project management, and carry out other common design tasks effectively. Technical staff should be aware of basic AutoCAD commands and computer-aided-drafting concepts to draw, design, and draft.

This course is designed to help students to understand the fundamentals of AutoCAD commands including Printed Circuit Board (PCB) design and MATLAB concepts.

After completing this course, students will have sound knowledge on CAD to prepare neat and accurate electrical engineering drawings for industrial power and control applications.

**Electro-Technology**

Network analysis is a structured technique used to mathematically analyze a circuit. Most electrical networks are very complex. To analyze them, circuit theorems, techniques and laws are really important. Superposition Theorem, Thevenin Theorem, Norton Theorem, Maximum Power Transfer Theorem, Substitution Theorem, Millman Theorem and Reciprocity Theorem are the fundamental laws used for network analysis. All these circuit theorems help us to find the basic electrical parameters like voltage and current in a simpler way.

This course is designed to help students to understand the fundamentals of network analysis including three phase systems, reactive power compensation and filters.

After completing this course, students will have fundamental knowledge on the network techniques, like node analysis and loop analysis, to write equations for large linear circuits.

**Electrical Actuators**

Electric motors involve rotating coils of wire which are driven by the magnetic force exerted by a magnetic field on an electric current. They transform electrical energy into mechanical energy and they can be classified into direct current or DC and alternating current or AC motors. DC or AC is a very common term which refers to how the electrical current is transferred through and from the motor. Both types of motors have different utilities and uses.

This course is designed to help students to understand the constructional features and operation of motors and its interfacing to microcontrollers including linear electro-pneumatic actuators and smas (muscle wire) and solenoids.

After completing this course, students will have expert knowledge on the construction, characteristics, operation and application on various types of motors.

**Robot Mechanics**

Robotics deals with the design, construction, operation, and application of robots, as well as computer systems for their control, sensory feedback, and information processing. Robots have some kind of mechanical construction, electrical components which power and control the machinery and some level of computer programming code. The vast majority of robots use electric motors, often brushed and brushless DC motors in portable robots or AC motors in industrial robots and CNC machines.

This course is designed to help students to understand the construction and operation of robots including electric motors and batteries.

After completing this course, students will have expert knowledge on the recent developments in robot mechanics.

**Robot Kinematics**

Kinematics specifies the joint parameters and computes the configuration of the chain. For serial manipulators this is achieved by direct substitution of the joint parameters into the forward kinematics equations for the serial chain. The essential concept of forward kinematic is that the positions of particular parts of the model at a specified time are calculated from the position and orientation of the object, together with any information on the joints of an articulated model.

This course is designed to help students to understand the concept and use of a homogenous transformation matrix including kinematics of industrial robots and spherical wrist.

After completing this course, students will have expert knowledge on the basic principles of robot kinematics, dynamics, sensing and actuation, and control.

**Analog Circuit Design**

With advances in power electronics, need for dc power supplies in integrated circuits (ICs) and digital circuits has increased tremendously. Power electronics finds wide application in power utility systems and uninterruptible power sources, to increase the efficiency of the system. In industries, it is used to control the motors running at variable speed and also to reduce the harmonics. Thus a professional knowledge on operation of power electronic devices is a must for a technical staff working in high power application system.

This course is designed to help students to understand the fundamental principles and working of various power devices and power converters, derive converters mathematical relations, examine and design electronics for the control of energy converters.

After completing this course, will be familiar with the current trends and emerging applications of semiconductor devices that offer higher efficiency and higher power density.

**Digital Circuit Design**

Digital circuits are the basic blocks of modern electronic devices like mobile phones, digital cameras, microprocessors and several other devices. To be effective, technical staff should be well versed with the performance analysis of digital circuits and to design high performance circuits.

This course is designed to help students to understand the basic concepts of digital number systems and logic circuits and also to differentiate between combinational and sequential circuits such as decoders, encoders, multiplexers, demultiplexers, flip- flops, counters and registers.

After completing this course, students will be able to verify the functions of various digital integrated circuits and start writing HDL codes for various digital circuits.

**Machine Vision**

Machine vision has progressed in leaps and bounds since the disappointments in the eighties with tremendous results achievable today. Nowadays, machine vision systems are highly effective and a key part of many industrial systems ranging from mineral processing to manufacturing. It provides an intensive introduction to the process of generating a symbolic description of an environment from an image and also offers many opportunities for process optimization.

This course is designed to help students to understand the fundamentals of selecting and setting up the appropriate machine vision and image processing hardware components, lightning techniques and optical filters.

After completing this course, students will be aware of the image processing implications of various optical aberrations and valuate new methods of electro-optical compensation.

**WHO SHOULD COMPLETE THIS COURSE**

- Electrical Engineers
- Network Design Engineers
- Plant Engineers
- Mechanical engineers
- Control Engineers
- Maintenance Technicians
- System Integrators
- Managers
- Electronic engineers
- Designers

**COURSE OUTLINE**

INSTRUMENTATION SYSTEM HISTORY

- Phases of instrumentation system

VIRTUAL INSTRUMENTATION

- History
- Architecture
- Technology

LABVIEW PLATFORM

- Introduction to LabVIEW
- Characteristics

LABVIEW PROGRAMMING TECHNIQUES

- Virtual instruments in LabVIEW

SIGNAL PROCESSING

- Fourier Transform
- Windowing
- Filtering

INTRODUCTION TO REMOTE LABORATORIES

- Building blocks of Remote Experiment network
- An Experiment Server
- A Media server
- A Web Server
- An Access Server
- A Provider Server
- Regional and National networks of Remote Labs

SOFTWARE ENGINEERING IN REMOTE LABORATORIES

- List of Client side technologies
- List of technologies
- Comparison of two client side technologies

REMOTE CONTROLLED LABORATORIES

- Remote control
- Remote and virtual Laboratories

REMOTE ELECTRONICS EQUIPMENT

- Electronics equipment
- VSIR workbench vs Hands-on one
- Switching matrix
- Component board
- Virtual breadboard

ILAB SHARED ARCHITECTURE

- Interactive and Sensor experiments
- Topology of batched labs
- Topology of interactive labs
- NI-ELVIS Web Interface
- Interface example

BACKGROUND TO SCADA

- Introduction
- Fundamental principles of Modern SCADA systems
- SCADA Hardware and Software
- Typical SCADA system
- Landlines for SCADA
- Modern use in SCADA systems

SCADA SYSTEMS, HARDWARE AND FIRMWARE

- SCADA System
- Distributed control system
- Programmable logical control
- Remote Terminal Unit

PROCESS VISUALIZATION

- Application visualization system
- General visualization system
- OpenDX
- SCIRun

THE INTERNET OF THINGS (IOT) TODAY

- Introduction
- Enabling Technologies
- Identification, sensing and communication technologies
- Middleware

IOT APPLICATIONS IN THE INDUSTRY

- Smart energy and smart grid
- Value for creation for industry
- IoT Application requirements
- IoT Industrial application challenges

WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK APPLICATIONS

- Bluetooth
- Zigbee
- Agriculture applications
- Cold chain monitoring applications
- Military applications
- Environmental applications
- Industrial and Health applications
- Smart home applications

AUTONOMOUS LAND VEHICLE SYSTEM

- Mobility
- Localization
- Navigation
- Mission and Task Planning
- Communication

UNMANNED AIR SYSTEMS

- Systemic Basis of UAS
- Payload
- Air Vehicle
- Navigation system
- Interfaces

AUTONOMOUS UNDERWATER VEHICLES

- Navigation
- Power
- Application of AUV

OBJECT SENSORS FOR AUTONOMOUS VEHICLES

- Ultrasonic Sonars
- Regular cameras
- Laser scanners
- 3D Camera
- Radars

BASIC CAD CONCEPTS

- Introduction to CAD
- Parts of an Engineering drawing

AUTOCAD USER INTERFACE

- What is AUTOCAD?
- AUTOCAD Interface
- Creating new diagram
- Initialising

BASIC DRAWING COMMANDS

- Object snap
- Drawing line
- Drawing circle
- Drawing arc

BASIC EDITING COMMANDS

- Edit and Modify
- Copy command and Minor command
- Array command
- Lengthen command

AUTOCAD 3D DRAWING

- Wireframe modeling
- Solid modeling

COMPONENTS OF VIRTUAL INSTRUMENT

- Virtual Instruments
- Controls and function palettes
- Tips for working in Labview

DATA ACQUISITION

- DAQ – Data acquisition
- Data acquisition terminology
- Hardware connections

LOOPS AND CHARTS

- For loop
- While loop
- Charts

ARRAYS AND FILE I/O

- Adding an array
- Creating an array with a loop
- Creating 2D arrays
- File I/O examples

ARRAY FUNCTION AND GRAPH

- General VI architecture
- State machine architecture

ANALOG-DIGITAL CIRCUIT SIMULATION CONCEPTS

- Analog circuits and applications
- Commonly used components
- Settings for components
- Simulation settings
- Schematics and simulation commands

ANALOGUE SIMULATIONS WITH LTSPICEIV

- Fullwave rectifier
- Solution
- Buck converter
- Three phase rectifier example

SIMULATIONS WITH NI MULTISIM

- Placing components
- Taking simple measurements
- Setting inductor values
- Simulation on Multisim
- Examples

PCB PREPARATION

- PCB Applications
- System specification
- System block diagram
- PCB design process
- PCB design flow

PROCESS OVERVIEW

- Design requirements
- PCB elements
- PCB manufacturing & parts
- Parts Selection guidelines

PCB LAYOUT PROCEDURE

- Layout rules
- Part/Function placement
- Routing consideration
- Copper areas

GERBER FILE OUTPUT

- Exporting Drill and Gerber files
- Reviewing manufacture data
- Gerber tool example

BASIC CONCEPTS

- What is MATLAB?
- MATLAB functionality
- User Interface
- Workspace
- MATLAB Variables
- Vector and Matrices
- Complex valued numbers

CONTROL FLOW

- Nested branch control
- Switch Statement
- Operators and relational operators

FUNCTION AND RECURSION

- Script and function files
- Area of circle
- Recursion in function

FILE INPUT AND OUTPUT

- Opening data from files
- Printing data to files
- Opening and close examples

OHM'S LAW

- Relation between Voltage, current and resistance
- Ohm's law problem and solutions

CIRCUITS

- Voltage and current
- Resistors in series and parallel

KIRCHHOFF'S LAW

- Current (1st Law)
- Voltage (2nd Law)

NETWORK ANALYSIS

- Thevenin's theorem
- Norton's theorem
- Superposition principal

WHEATSTONE BRIDGE

- Introduction
- Problem and solution

INDUCTORS, CAPACITORS AND VECTORS

- Inductors in series and parallel
- Capacitor types
- Capacitor in series and parallel
- Vectors in electrical networks
- Problems

PHASE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CURRENTS AND VOLTAGES IN CAPACITORS AND INDUCTORS

- Voltage current relationship
- Resistive vs. reactive current
- Inductive circuit and reactance
- Resistive circuit and reactance
- Capacitive circuit and reactance

STEP RESPONSE OF RL AND RC CIRCUIT

- Step response of RL circuit
- Step response of RC circuit
- Problem and solution

REAL NUMBERS AND IMAGINARY NUMBERS

- Real number
- Imaginary number
- Complex number
- Argand diagram
- Sum and subtraction of complex numbers
- Multiplication and division of complex numbers

CALCULATION OF RMS AND PEAK VALUES OF VOLTAGE AND CURRENT

- Peak values of voltage and current
- RMS value
- RMS value of voltage and current

CALCULATION OF INDUCTIVE AND CAPACITIVE REACTANCE

- Inductive reactance
- Capacitive reactance
- Impedance of series and parallel circuit

SINGLE AND THREE PHASE POWER

- Single phase supply
- Three phase supply

ELECTRIC POWER AND AVERAGE POWER CONSUMPTION

- Electric Power
- AC Power
- Average values
- Apparent power
- Real or true Power
- Imaginary power

POWER FACTOR AND ITS IMPLICATIONS

- Power triangle
- Power factor
- Problems and solution
- Drawbacks of poor power factor

REACTIVE POWER COMPENSATION

- Benefits of power factor improvement
- Total power for three phase system
- Problems and solutions

THREE PHASE SYSTEM CONNECTION

- 3 phase circuit relationships
- Three phase system loads
- Power calculation

NOISE IN CIRCUITS

- Noise
- Noise – Common mode
- Noise – Transverse mode
- Transverse noise

FILTER

- Introduction
- Signal attenuation
- Low pass filter
- High pass filter
- Band pass filter
- Band stop filter

ORDER OF FILTER

- Bode plot
- Simple 1st order high pass filter
- 2nd order high pass filter

TWO PORT NETWORKS

- T network
- Balanced T network
- Pi network
- Balanced pi network

HI-PASS FILTER CHARACTERTIC

- Cutoff frequency
- Calculation example
- Network impedance
- High pass symmetrical filter

FILTER DESIGN

- Series Resonance
- Active filter
- Passive filter
- Shunt filter
- Series filter

CONSTRUCTION AND PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION

- Fleming left hand rule
- Basic construction
- Questions and answers

MOTOR CURVES

- Voltage vs. Current
- Speed vs. Torque

DRIVE METHODS

- 3 point starter
- 4 point starter
- H-Bridge drive

CONTROL OF SPEED, DIRECTION AND BRAKING

- Control of speed
- Control of direction
- Control of braking

INTERFACING TO MICROCONTROLLERS

- Interfacing to PIC microcontrollers
- Questions and answers

CONSTRUCTION AND WORKING OF SERVO METER

- Servo meter
- Construction
- Working

CONTROL CIRCUITS AND SIGNALS

- Control circuits
- Control signals
- Encoders
- Tachometers
- Applications

INTERFACING TO MICROCONTROLLERS

- Motors in different length
- Ability to control torque

CONSTRUCTION OF STEPPER MOTOR

- Stepper motor types/classification
- Operation principle
- Permanent magnet
- Classification- hybrid

PRINCIPLES OF STEPPER MOTOR

- Principles of operation
- Stepping
- Questions and answers

DRIVE METHODS

- Generating high torque with compact body
- Control with pulse signals
- Motor holds its position at shop
- Closed loop stepper motor

INTERFACE TO MICROCONTROLLERS

- Torque comparison of stepper and servos
- Unsuitable applications for steppers

INDUCTION MOTORS

- Principles
- Construction
- Questions and answers

SYNCHRONOUS MOTORS

- Principles
- Construction
- Start of synchronous motors
- Questions and answers

LINEAR INDUCTION AND SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR

- Linear Induction motor
- Linear synchronous motor
- Types of Linear motor
- Flat type linear motors
- Maglev

AC MOTOR CONTROL

- Variable frequency drive
- Soft starter

SLEWING DRIVES

- Parts
- Application of solar tracker
- Color description
- Motor options

LINEAR ELECTRO-HYDRAULIC ACTUATORS

- Definition and working
- Questions and answers

LINEAR ELECTRO-PNEUMATIC ACTUATORS

- Definition and working
- Questions and answers
- Electrical Linear Actuators
- Electromechanical actuation system

GEAR DRIVE AND BELT DRIVE ACTUATORS

- Diagrams
- Examples
- Questions and answers

ACME AND BALL SCREW DRIVERS

- Acme screw drivers
- Ball screw drivers
- Selecting and sizing screw drive system

ULTRASONIC MOTORS

- Piezoelectric effect
- Piezo electric motor vs. EM motor
- Ultrasonic linear motor
- Ultrasonic rotary motor

BRUSHLESS DC MOTORS

- Working of Brushless DC motors
- Questions and answers

PIEZO LINEAR STACK ACTUATORS

- Applications
- Advantages
- Questions and answers

SMAS (MUSCLE WIRE) AND SOLENOIDS

- One way vs. two way shape memory
- Metals programming
- Applications of SMA
- Types of solenoids
- Questions and answers

INTRODUCTION TO ROBOT MECHANICS

- Theoretical mechanics
- Parts of Robots
- Classification of Robots
- Types of Robots

MOMENT ARMS

- Force
- Moment
- Moment arm for robot
- Degree of freedom of robots
- Joints of robots

MECHANICAL TRANSFORMATION DEVICES

- Levers
- Belts and Pulleys
- Gear boxes
- Lead Screws

STATIC AND DYNAMIC FICTION

- Types of friction
- Static and dynamic friction
- Friction dependencies in robot joints

SAFETY FACTORS

- Stress-Strain graph
- Stress-Strain curve for ductile materials
- Working stress - Limit stress

DISPLACEMENT AND VELOCITY

- Introduction
- Linear displacement
- Angular displacement
- Linear velocity
- Angular velocity
- Displacement of robots
- Robot dynamics

ACCELERATION

- Linear Acceleration
- Angular Acceleration
- Radial Acceleration
- Example

WHEEL DIAMETER VS TORQUE

- Number of wheels in robot design
- Common three wheeled robot configuration
- The four basic wheel types in robots

WHEEL DIAMETER CALCULATION FOR MOBILE ROBOTS

GEARINGS

- Torque and gearing
- Gearing principles
- Gear ratio
- Gearing Pros and cons
- Gear trains and types

MOMENTUM

- Linear Momentum
- Angular Momentum

INERTIA

- Mass moment of Inertia
- Moment of Inertia
- Radius of gyration
- Moment of Inertia – typical bodies

MOTOR TORQUE AND FORCE

- Gearing Ratio and Load torque
- Peak and RMS Load Torque
- Total Tractive effort
- Torque at Wheel

ELECTRIC MOTORS

- Construction
- Working Principle
- Types of DC Motors
- Types of AC motors
- Stepper Motors and its types
- Linear motors
- Solenoids

MOTOR SIZING AND SELECTION

- Motor Sizing - Basic Procedure
- Motor Sizing - Robot motion profile
- Motor Sizing - Inertia and Torque calculations
- Motor Sizing – Peak Torque and Force
- Motor Selection – Selection Steps

LOAD AND SYSTEM ANALYSIS

- Load on Robots
- Static and Dynamic overloading of Robot
- Design and selection of robot manipulators
- System load analysis
- Loads and system analysis
- Load parameters

POTENTIAL AND KINETIC ENERGY

- Energy
- Forms of energy
- Unified energy required
- Unified energy – PE/KE Calculation

ENERGY LOSSES

- Ground friction
- Gearing and Transmission losses
- Air friction losses
- Other losses
- Losses due to operating patterns
- Reducing Energy losses

EFFICIENCIES

- Efficiency measures
- Optimizing efficiencies
- Energy requirements
- Energy calculations

BATTERIES

- Battery Voltage Rating
- Battery Power Rating
- Batteries in Parallel
- Types of Batteries

ENERGY CONVERSION

- Total energy of a system
- Total energy equation of a system
- Summary of energy conversion

DOT PRODUCT

- Algebraic definition
- Properties
- Basic joints
- Math review

UNIT VECTOR

- Cartesian coordinates
- Cylindrical coordinates
- 1 and 3 dimensions
- Example

MATRIX ADDITION AND MULTIPLICATION

- Rules for matrix addition
- Matrix multiplication
- Identity matrix

USING MATLAB FOR MATRIX MANIPULATION

- Creating a matrix
- Transpose of matrix A
- Multiply these two matrices
- Summary

FRAME ATTACHMENT

- Description of position
- Description of orientation
- Mappings involving translated frames
- Mappings involving rotated frames

HOMOGENEOUS REPRESENTATION

- Translation
- Rotation
- Equivalent angle-axis representation
- Transform equations
- XYZ fixed angles

FORWARD KINEMATICS - LINK DESCRIPTION

- Link connection description
- Convention for Affixing Frames to links
- Link parameter in terms of the link frames

LINK-FRAME ATTACHMENT PROCEDURE

- Link frame assignment
- Two possible frame assignments

DERIVATION OF LINK TRANSFORMATIONS

- Mapping between kinetic descriptions

KINEMATICS OF INDUSTRIAL ROBOTS

- Link parameter of PUMA560
- Link transformation
- Product of all six link transform

DENAVIT HARTENBERG PARAMETERS

- Denavit and Hardenberg matrix
- Planar Elbow manipulator

THREE-LINK CYLINDRICAL ROBOT

- Three link cylindrical manipulator

SPHERICAL WRIST

- DH parameter for Stanford manipulator
- DH parameter of Revolute-Prismatic planar arm

INVERSE KINEMATICS

- Existence of solutions
- Multiple solutions
- Method solutions

ALGEBRAIC SOLUTION

- Algebraic solution to three link planar manipulator

GEOMETRIC SOLUTION

- Geometric approach to manipulator solution

ALGEBRAIC SOLUTION BY REDUCTION TO POLYNOMIAL

- The Unimation PUMA 560
- Yasukawa Motomart L-3

RECTIFIER DIODES

- Zener diode
- Voltage regulator
- Waveform clipper
- Voltage shifter

LIGHT EMITTING DIODE

- Description of LED
- Circuit diagram of LED
- Applications of LED

PHOTODIODE

- Transzorbs
- Comparison of Transient suppressors

HALF AND FULLWAVE RECTIFIER

- Halfwave rectifier circuit
- Fullwave bridge/Centre tap Rectification
- Three phase fullwave rectifier
- Rectifier output smoothing

TRANSISTORS, THYRISTORS AND TRIACS

- Bipolar transistor structure
- Transistor parameters
- Phototransistor

FET

SCR

- Optocouplers in IC design

BASIC TRANSISTOR AMPLIFIER

- Common emitter amplifier
- Emitter follower
- Class B amplifier

POWER SUPPLY DESIGN

- Unregulated power supply in bridge rectifier
- Regulated power supply in bridge rectifier

IDEAL OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER

- Inverting and Non inverting Amplifiers
- Voltage followers
- Instrumentation amplifiers
- Differential amplifiers
- Summing amplifiers

ACTIVE FILTERS

- Low pass filters
- First order filter
- High pass filter
- Second order filter

ANALOG TO DIGITAL CONVERTERS

- Digital signal processing system
- Flash ADC
- Dual slope ADC
- Successful approximation ADC

DIGITAL TO ANALOG CONVERTERS

- Binary Weighted Input DAC
- R/2R Ladder DAC
- Performance characteristics DAC

PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC DEVICES (PLD)

- Basic overview
- The Logic analyzer
- Signal generator
- Digital multimeter

NUMBER SYSTEMS

- Decimal number
- Weighting structure of Binary
- Decimal to Binary conversion
- Octal to Decimal conversion
- Decimal to Octal conversion
- Octal to Binary conversion
- Hexadecimal to binary conversion

OPERATIONS AND CODES

- Addition and Subtraction of binary numbers
- ASCII
- Gray
- Binary to Gray Conversion
- Gray to Binary Conversion
- BCD

LOGIC GATES (SSI) AND SIMPLIFICATION

- Inverters
- Logic gates
- Ex-OR and Ex-NOR gates
- Boolean analysis of Logic circuits
- Truth tables and Karnaugh maps

ADDERS AND COMPARATORS

- Half and Full Adders
- Parallel Binary Adders
- Example
- Comparators
- Example

DECODERS AND ENCODERS

- 4- bit decoder
- BCD to decimal decoder
- Example
- Encoder
- BCD to decimal encoder

CODE CONVERTERS

- BCD to Binary Conversion
- Binary to grey and Grey to binary
- Example

MULTIPLEXERS AND DEMULTIPLEXERS

- 74LS151 8 – Input Data Selector
- Example
- Solution
- 74HC154 Demultiplexer
- 74LS280 9 – Bit parity Generator/Checker

MONOSTABLE MULTIVIBRATORS

ASTABLE MULTIVIBRATORS

- 555 Timer
- 555 Timer Astable Operation

FLIPFLOPS AND SHIFT REGISTERS

- Edge triggered SR flipflops
- S-R flipflops
- Edge triggered D flipflops
- Edge triggered J-K flipflops
- Serial in/serial out shift registers
- Parallel in/parallel out shift registers
- Bidirectional shift registers

MACHINE VISION SOFTWARE

- Introduction
- Processing constraints
- Frame Grabber and Connectivity
- Image analysis
- Blob analysis
- Pattern matching and Recognition
- Machine Vision

MACHINE AND HUMAN VISION

- Introduction
- Block diagram of machine vision system
- Machine vision system components
- Design of an efficient Machine vision system
- Human Eye – Basic principles

COLOUR AND MACHINE VISION APPLICATIONS

- Visual sense and Visible spectrum
- Visual EM spectrum
- Colour properties and Eye
- Machine vision applications
- Examples

DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING AND DISCRETE FOURIER TRANSFORM

- Introduction
- Image Representation
- Fourier Transform
- Spectrum: Magnitude and Phase
- Discrete Fourier Transform
- Fast Fourier Transform

SAMPLING THEORY AND ALIASING

- Sampling
- Example
- Sampling Theorem
- Aliasing

FILTERING AND HISTOGRAM

- Smoothing filtering
- Spatial filtering
- Histogram

LIGHTING TECHNIQUES AND SOURCES

- Lighting
- Why is Lighting critical?
- Lighting Parameters
- Considerations for Lighting
- Lighting directions
- Ring Illuminator
- Structured Light

OPTICAL FILTERS AND DEVICES

- Optical Filters
- Optical Devices
- Lenses
- Mirrors
- Polarizers

SENSORS

- Sensors Usage
- CMOS Sensors
- CCD Sensors
- CCD Advantages

SENSES AND RESOLUTION

- Types of camera
- Camera formats
- Lens Mounts
- Field of View
- Evaluate Resolution